Stories from our Church History
by Anna Louise Bates, PhD, Church Historian
In 2020, I published a story in the church newsletter about blackface minstrel shows performed by members of our church during the 1950s. The article was based upon primary documents; in this case, programs from the 1951 and 52 shows. The programs evidenced deep racial insensitivity among our congregation, including at least one pastor, The Reverend Willett Porter, and other high-ranking members. This writing is a follow-up to that piece. My purpose is to give readers a glimpse of what the work of a church historian is like. We dig through boxes of old documents seeking fodder for our narratives.
An interesting set of notes kept by an entity called the “Double Forty Club” provides a snapshot of our church during the 1940s, 50s and 60s. Although the membership changed over time, it was intended as a club for older church members, specifically, couples more than forty years old. Most of the club’s activities were admirable. They hosted dinners, sales to raise funds and provided gifts and donations for various occasions such as weddings and bridal showers.
Browsing their minutes, I found a description of one disturbing event. The club hosted a Halloween party on October 31, 1940. A deliberately anonymous description of the participants read as follows:
The hall was appropriately decorated with corn stalks, pumpkins, and candles … The old witch was there, also Farmer Brown and his milkmaid, the darky in his frock coat, a very enthusiastic fisherman all ready to reel in a big trout, the man about town in his white flannels and a gypsy who had stopped in on her way through town. … Games were played, including bobbing for apples after which the committee served pumpkin pie, popcorn, cider, and coffee.
Sounds like a delightful and gay affair, except for one thing. A “darky?” We are not told who wore that costume, but the implications are obvious. “Old Darky” was a stock minstrel show character: A black-faced Uncle Tom in a frilly coat. Do I need to explain how crassly insulting this is of African Americans? I think not.
I will share, though, the significance of the document. When I wrote the piece about minstrel shows, I had only two programs to work from. I found a few articles in archival newspapers announcing those two shows, and a couple of other shows in the 1950s. The Double Forty document provides evidence of minstrel shows at least a decade before the ones in the 1950s.
All of the minstrel show documents document our congregation’s insensitivity to racial issues, and to African Americans in general. Now, at a time when we see daily evidence of racial strife in our country, we are called once again to examine our actions carefully. It would be easy to pat ourselves on the back and say, “wow, we have come so far!” But have we? This is a time for some deep soul-searching. However much good we do as a church, we need to ask ourselves whether we turn a blind eye to suffering in darker corners. Do no harm. Do good. Stay in love with God. Ours is not an easy path.
by Anna Louise Bates, PhD, Church Historian
In 1960, the New Paltz Methodist Church had occupied its new church building for more than thirty years. During that time, the congregation had grown from 370 members in 1932 to 413 in 1960. Besides Sunday services, the church featured multiple Sunday School classes for all ages from infants to adults. Those students crowded the church’s small spaces. For years, the church appealed to the New York Conference for funds to construct additional space for their growing Sunday School and multiple clubs and committees.
The Education Wing of the New Paltz United Methodist Church is a thriving example how a determined community can accomplish big things. Members and trustees knew in the late 1950s that the Methodist Church building had outgrown its capacity. The growing Sunday School had twenty teachers and 160 pupils. Church clubs such as the Epworth League, the Double Forty Club, The Ladies Aid Society, Women’s and Men’s clubs and many others occupied every available space at the church every night of the week.
The church began appeals to the New York Conference for expansion funds, but knew that most of the cost of the planned education wing would fall on the church’s membership. A Building Committee formed in 1958 to survey the needs of the church and Church School relative to inadequate building facilities. A highly successful Crusade for Funds commenced in 1959.
The church contracted the Schneider Brothers to build the new addition. The bulk of the expense for the new wing was covered by member gifts and pledges, amounting to more than $22,000. Of the $50,000 plus cost of the construction project. The New York Conference contributed $5,000. The balance was financed at the Huguenot Bank. (New Paltz Methodist Church 1962)
The new wing was consecrated on May 21, 1961. More than 250 people attended the ceremony.
The New Paltz Independent bragged that the new addition featured: “[A] two-story brick and cement block building … attached to the main church structure by a glass enclosed breezeway. It houses Sunday Class facilities, making available rooms in the church for a music room, church office and pastoral study.” (New Paltz Independent 1961) Besides the new wing, the church also purchased a nearby property that would eventually house the “Cave Inn,” a social gathering place for students. That building is now the New Paltz Hostel.
In 1962 the Sunday School teaching staff numbered nineteen, serving more than 160 pupils each week. By May 1962, a short year after the new wing opened, the church planned a canvass of its members to raise funds to pay off the mortgage on the new wing. “It is anticipated,” wrote the Kingston Daily Freeman, “that this campaign will see the complete retirement of the debt on the education wing completed last year.” (Kingston Daily Freeman 1962)
The education wing today houses a church-run play school. In 2018, the wing was dedicated to parishioner Helen Karsten, whose work helped initiate the play school in 1968.
by Anna Louise Bates, PhD, Church Historian
The New Paltz United Methodist Church building on Main Street is a well-known landmark in New Paltz. This is the first in a series of articles about the history of New Paltz Methodists’ current location. Prior to this building’s opening in 1929, the church occupied a building first constructed in 1840, located initially on the corner of Main and Church Streets before moving to its current location on Church St. It is now the Jewish Congregation of New Paltz Synagogue.
By 1920, the original church building had fallen into disrepair, and was inadequate for the burgeoning Methodist congregation. Significantly, the State Normal School (now SUNY New Paltz) had grown to 400 students, and many of the students’ parents wanted their children to attend church services while in college. In fact, students were a critical part of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Separate registers listing student attendees were kept by the church. It was largely to accommodate those students that the new church was built. According to a report in the New York Conference Journal in 1925:
“Both church and parsonage are located within fifty yards of a livery stable, the stench and flies from which are almost unbearable during warmer seasons of the year.”
Surely the families who sent students from New York’s genteel countryside aboard the train to New Paltz expected better. Besides bad odors, the church was overcrowded:
“The Sunday school has long since outgrown its quarters. The church is pitiably inadequate to accommodate the regular congregations and carry on the work that ought to be done. Increased attendance at the State Normal School and assurances of a still larger student body next year, make it very imperative of Methodism to do something worthwhile to help this society secure a suitable building.”
The church heeded those cries, and in 1929, on the brink of the Great Depression, opened its current building. If you are curious how the church fared amidst national economic crisis, stay tuned to this newsletter! More to follow.
Both quotations are from the New York Conference Journal, 1925, pp. 167-68.
by Anna Louise Bates, PhD, Church Historian
At a time when racial tensions run high in our communities, Christians are called to a heightened level of sensitivity to images in popular culture. Racially charged television shows, comic performances and commercials, though popular as recently as the 1990s, now come under intense scrutiny and appear infrequently. This is a positive sign. This has not always been the case, though. I learned an important lesson while perusing historical documents for our reputedly progressive and forward-looking United Methodist Church.
I came across two programs, dated 1951 and 1952, that stopped me cold. The programs, mimeographed on faded red and yellow cardstock with stapled crumbling newsprint pages, bore hand drawn images of white-gloved big-lipped smiling individuals with bowties. I recognized them instantly as minstrel show characters; figures from arcane racial productions that I associated with the post-Civil War American South during the rise of Jim Crowism.
I sat there for several seconds staring at them, trying hard to process what they meant. The New Paltz United Methodist Church with its rainbow flag and legacy of women pastors is among the most progressive in the region. In the years since my arrival in New York in the Fall of 2004 I have seen this church rally behind LGBTQI members and clergy, feed the homeless, and support mission efforts all over the world. Studying the church’s history, I found that it welcomed African American members during years when New Paltz remained reclusively white and middle class. Church records dating to the 1890s evidenced annual contributions to a Black College Fund, and the church offered multiple programs on race and equality over the years. Why, then, was I holding in my hands evidence of deeply insulting racism that demeaned and ridiculed African American people?
The two programs described in detail performances arranged according to the style of amateur minstrel shows. The 1951 cast included an Interlocutor (George Wicks) and End Men (Ernie Ahlberg, Harry Ahlberg, Doug Alverson and Cliff VanValkenburgh), accompanied by a chorus and several novelty acts. Songs included “Ah Wed Three Hundred Pounds,” “Walking My Baby Back Home,” “Here in my Heart” and “Swanee.” (The Men and Women of the New Paltz Methodist Church 1951) The 1952 program was similar, and included the pastor, The Rev. Willett Porter, performing a trumpet solo. The entire church contributed to the events in some way: “All members of the New Paltz Church have assisted if only through their friendly concern and well wishes.” (The Men and Women of the New Paltz Methodist Church 1952)
Articles in the Kingston Daily Freeman advertised the shows. “The Methodist Minstrel show is underway,” said the Freeman in 1952. “Last year the minstrel was held two nights. This year there is talk of expanding to three evenings because of the large crowds.” (Kingston Daily Freeman 1952) Ten days later, the Freeman updated the story: “The old time minstrel to be presented by the Methodist Church will have George Wicks as interlocutor. The end-men will be Doug Alverson, Clifford VanValkenburgh, Ernie and Harry Ahlberg. Special features will be Roger Thorpe, instrumentalist, Patty Burke, Tap Dancer, and a white quartet. A mixed chorus of church members will fill the stage. Mrs. Gertrude Upright will be at the piano. Bob Litt on the bass fiddle and the Rev. Mr. Porter on the clarinet. Tickets are on sale at Doug’s Auto Service. The dates are Nov. 13 and 14. Curtain time is 8:15 p.m.” (The Kingston Daily Freeman 1952)
There is a reason why I chose to name names in this article. The participants in these shows were members and contributors to the church and its programs. The New Paltz Methodist Church was a member of one of the most progressive Conferences in the denomination. The pastors of the church during the 1950s had reputations for social justice advocacy. Pastor Lee
Hampton Ball (1948-1950) edited the MFSA’s Social Questions Bulletin throughout the 1950s and 60s, and marched with Martin Luther King, Jr. during the 1960s. “Whether the cause was the Vietnam war, women’s liberation or gay rights, Lee was able to see the justice issue clearly and to respond without equivocation or rationalization.” (The United Methodist Church 1987). Willett Porter, pastor from 1951-64, had a similarly progressive reputation, serving in various social justice positions, including the Bowery Mission Ministries Board and the New York Methodist Student Movement. (United Methodist Church 2016) And yet despite his stellar humanitarian reputation, Porter played trumpet in at least two Methodist Minstrel shows, in 1951 and 1952. Casts for later shows are not available, but it is likely that Porter participated in all the shows until the final one in 1959. Curiously, though, Porter also encouraged members of his
community to attend the film, Broken Mask, which had earned a “Golden Reel Award as the Best Religious Film of the Year.” Broken Mask is about race relations experienced by two college
student, one white and one black. (Imdb.com 2019) “It is a message we all need to hear and see,” said Porter to The Kingston Daily Freeman, for we all wear certain masks which ought to be
broken.” (The Kingston Daily Freeman 1958)
So, why were these progressive Christians performing minstrel shows? I learned that the minstrel shows at the New Paltz Methodist Church were not unique. A search for the term “minstrel”
from the years 1949-1960 in the Kingston Daily Freeman returns 1,055 hits. It seems these shows were remarkably popular during these years. References to the New Paltz shows appear, as well as ads for shows in various area churches and public service venues. And the shows were not unique to male adults. “Lutheran Youth Group to Give Minstrel Show Pre-Lenten Tradition” announces a show at the Church of the Redeemer on Monday, March 1, 1954, noting that the event “…has become a tradition.” (Freeman 1954)
Multiple minstrel shows punctuated local entertainment venues during the first half of the twentieth century. Gladys DuBois reminisced about the shows she and her husband attended during the 1950s:
“… by far the most popular entertainment of the time was the minstrel show. Local amateur entertainers performed at the college auditorium. They would sit in a row of chairs at the front of the stage and warm up the audience with jokes addressed to “Mr. Bones” and others. Singing and dancing followed as the blackface players entertained farmers and students alike for the entire evening.” (Beuf 2007, 4) Peter Beuf, author of the story about Gladys Dubois, explained the apparent racism of the minstrel shows apologetically. “Gardiner was no different from other towns in the northeastern United States before the civil rights movement: blacks were tolerated but viewed with suspicion. It is difficult for someone from a younger generation to see minstrel shows as a benign form of entertainment, but in Gladys’s time it was just another event.” (Beuf 2007, 4-5)
That means, as recently as 2007 news that minstrel shows appeared frequently in the area, and drew large crowds, was not taken seriously. It was a different time. Are we to conclude that, because it was the 1950s, racism was not only tolerable but entertaining? What does this mean for our church today? There are no easy answers. Perhaps my writing this article about historical documents that shocked me to the realization that my church participated in racist minstrel shows, in fact reveled in them, calls us to examine more closely the things we find amusing and entertaining. Are elements of racism still evident in the television shows, films, and social media that entertain us daily? Perhaps we need to examine our entertainment and how it aligns with our faith much more closely.
“The world would come to an end…”
by Anna Louise Bates, PhD, Church Historian
How and why did the first Methodist preachers come to New Paltz? The Rev. Elijah Woolsey, a Methodist circuit rider who preached in New Paltz in 1801, kept a journal and wrote a memoir about his life. His memoir describes how his father, Revolutionary War veteran Captain John Woolsey, invited the first Methodist preachers to the towns of Marlborough and New Paltz in 1786. Elijah recalled a conversation between his father, a trustee of the Presbyterian Church in Marlborough, and his mother, that he overheard when he was a young teenager. (Coles, 1845) Elijah’s father claimed that the Presbyterian trustees were “out of humor” because they could not keep their minister any longer. “He … told them [the trustees],” recalled young Elijah, “… that there were sixty or seventy Methodist preachers in New-Jersey, and that they were great preachers ….” Remembering his father’s apparent enthusiasm during that conversation, he reflected: “Having read in the Scriptures that the gospel of the kingdom must be preached in all the world for a witness, and then shall the end come, I thought that those preachers were great and good men, and that they had begun at the southern extremity of the world, and were making their way to the north, and when they gained the northern extremity, the world would come to an end.”
Sometime after Captain Woolsey’s conversation with his wife, he invited Methodist preachers, who were working on a circuit emanating from New Jersey, to come and preach in Marlborough, located near the Hudson River, approximately twelve miles southeast of New Paltz. Methodist classes formed in and around that area and travelling circuit preachers made Marlborough a regular stop on the newly formed East Jersey Circuit.
Regarding New Paltz, Captain Woolsey’s daughter, Phoebe, married Hendricus Deyo, a descendant of one of New Paltz’s oldest families. We are not sure whether Captain Woolsey suggested that Methodist preachers visit his daughter’s family in New Paltz, or whether daughter Phoebe, or her husband, asked for them. We know that they came, though, and that the world did not end, even after the Methodists expanded their preaching far north of New Paltz, into Canada and other places.
By Anna Louise Bates, Church Historian
Four years ago, Laura Gust and Brianna Switzer, two senior history students from Empire State College, completed an internship that involved sorting boxes of historical documents at New Paltz United Methodist Church. In that process, they came across a faded, brittle newspaper that required special care to unfold without destroying. Thankfully, they worked under the tutelage of Pastor Bette Sohm, an experienced historical preservationist and archivist. Laura and Brianna copied and preserved the document, and it currently lives in an archival
quality box in the church library.
The newspaper pages are from the New Paltz Independent, dated June 15, 1894. The paper contains a story entitled “An Example of Two Ex-Slaves:”
Sometime during the late Civil War or soon after, there came to New Paltz a man who had been a slave in the South. He found work among the farmers and got some money together and bought a small place. He then sent for his wife, and on her arrival, they were regularly married and went into house-keeping. When they went to their home, they invited a number of their friends to a house-warming. This they had in the form of a prayer meeting. They were both pious, and this act shows great thoughtfulness on their part, and aﬀords a good example for persons of other races who have had better opportunities to follow. Fulton Cox, the husband, died in 1888, and left a will in which he provided that his wife should have the full use of the property, and, after her death if there was anything left it should go to the Methodist Episcopal Church, of New Paltz. About a year ago his widow died, and after settling up the estate of legacy of about $600. comes to the church. The church oﬃcers have placed a tablet in the vestibule of the church in memory of these worthy persons. This money is to be invested, and the interest is to be used for the support of the minister. In this way it will be a perpetual beneﬁt to the church, and also a perpetual memento of them through all time.The Independent 1894
This article raises two important questions: Why did Fulton Cox bequeath his estate to the New Paltz Methodist Episcopal Church, and what became of the Fulton Cox fund?
Fulton Cox and his wife, Jane, lived in New Paltz in a house that Fulton built on Pencil Hill during two federal censuses, those of 1870 and 1880. Fulton’s birth place is listed as South Carolina, suggesting that he was born a slave in that state. Jane Cox was born in Virginia. (Fulton and Jane were slaves in Virginia later on) Fulton is listed as “farm laborer” in both censuses, and Jane’s occupation as “keeps house.” Neither Fulton nor Jane could read, but apparently Jane could write. Fulton’s property value is listed as $800.00. He is the only Black person of the seven listed who owned any property. There is also a column in this census labeled “denied voting,” which Fulton Cox was not. So, he was listed as a voter. None of the seven Black people listed were “denied voting.” The same goes for thirteen listed in the 1880 census. (Bureau 1870) (Bureau 1880)
As a farm laborer, Fulton suﬀered several injuries as a result of the dangerous work that he did. In 1882, while chopping wood, “…the axe slipped and struck the ﬂeshy part of his hand, making an ugly wound, which will unﬁt Fulton for work for a week or two.” (New Paltz Times 1882) In January 1886 , “while riding in a wagon … holding up a stove, accidentally fell out. In falling Mr. Cox received quite severe injuries, from which he was conﬁned to the house.” (New Paltz Times 1886) Later that year, he “…had one of his feet badly smashed at the time Abm. D. Relyea’s team fell oﬀ of Pencil Hill.” (New Paltz Times 1886).
Fulton was atiKve politically. Besides voting, he ran for Supervisor in 1887, but received only one vote. (New Paltz Times 1887) He attended both the inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant in 1873, and his funeral procession in 1885. (New Paltz Times 1873) (New Paltz Times 1885)
Despite his inability to read or write, Fulton clearly cared much about education. He is listed among donors of items to the New Paltz Normal School several times, usually donating a slate. He also visited Dr. H.M. Bauscher, the former
principal of the New Paltz Academy, after he retired and moved to Clifton Point, Long Island in 1882, although his connection to Dr. Bauscher is not clear. (New Paltz Times 1882)
Fulton and Jane Cox’s connection to the Methodist Episcopal Church is made clear in the notes of the church’s Seekers Sunday School Class dated September 27, 1949. Apparently,
there was an annual fund-raiser to enhance the Fulton Cox fund. The notes relate that the Coxes sat in the last pew in the old church,” and Fulton once said he would “be worth more to the church after I am dead.” (Seekers Club 1949) Indeed, by the terms of Fulton’s will, his house and the property it stood on became the property of the New Paltz Methodist Church upon Jane Cox’s death. (billiongraves.com n.d.) The house and its contents were sold at auction, and a fund created at the church. It is not clear what became of the Fulton Cox fund. It possibly became part of another fund, such as the Black College Fund, but this is not certain.
What is clear, though, is that Fulton and Jane Cox were committed Methodists. While church records do not record the date they joined the congregation, it is possible that the church was served by various circuit riders during the Coxes early days in New Paltz. The “old church” referenced by The Seekers was erected in 1881. That he willed his estate to the church speaks to
his faithfulness to his denomination, and his church community. It is my hope that the church will trace the Fulton Cox fund, and continue its tribute to this remarkable Methodist family.